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Diabetes is a condition in which a person has a high blood sugar (glucose) due to the body either not producing enough insulin or as a result of the body cells lack of ability to respond properly to the insulin that is produced.

Insulin is a hormone that is created in the pancreas. It enables a person’s body cells to absorb glucose and turn it into energy. If the glucose cannot be absorbed by body cells then it accumulates in the blood (hyperglycemia) and leads to potential medical complications.

The common types of diabetes are:

-Type 1 Diabetes: Caused by the body’s (pancreas) inability to create insulin and usually requires the person to inject insulin. See below for a more detailed definition.

-Type 2 Diabetes: Caused by insulin resistance (cells do not use insulin properly). This type can be combined with absolute insulin deficiency. See below for a more detailed definition.

-Gestational Diabetes: This type is caused by high blood glucose levels developed during pregnancy. It can precede the development of Type 2 Diabetes. See below for a more detailed definition.

MMC’s Diabetes team includes CINDY ARGO, Nurse Practitioner and Certified Diabetes Educator and KIM THARPE, Nurse Practitioner

Type 1 Diabetes – Definition by Mayo Clinic Staff

Type 1 Diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.

Various factors may contribute to Type 1 Diabetes, including genetics and exposure to certain viruses. Although Type 1 Diabetes typically appears during adolescence, it can develop at any age.

Despite active research, Type 1 Diabetes has no cure, though it can be managed. With proper treatment, people who have Type 1 Diabetes can expect to live longer, more healthy lives than in the past.


Type 2 Diabetes – Definition by Mayo Clinic Staff

Type 2 Diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose) – Your body’s main source of fuel.

When you have Type 2 Diabetes, your body is resistant to the effects of insulin – a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into cells – or your body doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. Untreated, the consequences of Type 2 Diabetes can be life-threatening.

There is no cure for Type 2 Diabetes, but you can manage – or even prevent the condition. Start by eating healthy foods, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise are not enough, you may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy to manage your blood sugar.


Gestational Diabetes – Definition by Mayo Clinic Staff

A type of diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy. Like other forms of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects the way your body uses sugar (glucose) – your body’s main source of fuel. Gestational Diabetes can cause high blood sugar levels that are unlikely to cause problems for you, but can threaten the health of your unborn baby.

Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there is good news. You can manager Gestational Diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising regularly and, if necessary, taking medication. Taking good care of yourself can help ensure a healthy pregnancy for you and a healthy start for your baby.

Fortunately, Gestational Diabetes is usually short-lived. Blood sugar levels typically return to normal soon after delivery.


For more detailed information on this condition visit these websites: